TIOBE Programming Community Index for March 2006

March Headline: Perl has now lowest ratings of the last 5 years

The TIOBE Programming Community index gives an indication of the popularity of programming languages. The index is updated once a month. The ratings are based on the world-wide availability of skilled engineers, courses and third party vendors. The popular search engines Google, MSN, and Yahoo! are used to calculate the ratings. Observe that the TPC index is not about the best programming language or the language in which most lines of code have been written.

The index can be used to check whether your programming skills are still up to date or to make a strategic decision about what programming language should be adopted when starting to build a new software system. The definition of the TPC index can be found here.

Mar 2006
Mar 2005
in Position
Programming Language Ratings
Mar 2006
Mar 2005
1 2 Java 21.889% +3.01% A
2 1 C 17.794% -1.67% A
3 3 C++ 11.159% -0.47% A
4 4 PHP 9.948% +0.53% A
5 6 Basic 9.892% +2.99% A
6 5 Perl 6.421% -2.73% A
7 7 C# 3.146% +0.61% A
8 8 Python 3.093% +0.66% A
9 9 Delphi/Kylix 1.843% -0.29% A
10 11 JavaScript 1.733% +0.08% A
11 12 SAS 1.337% +0.07% A
12 10 PL/SQL 0.990% -0.68% A
13 26 13*! ColdFusion 0.602% +0.29% B
14 19 Ada 0.595% +0.10% B
15 17 Lisp/Scheme 0.576% -0.07% B
16 51 35*! Visual FoxPro 0.535% +0.47% B
17 14 COBOL 0.528% -0.33% A-
18 18 Pascal 0.527% -0.01% B
19 15 ABAP 0.519% -0.19% B
20 23 VB.NET 0.506% +0.14% B

Long term trends

The long term trends for the first 10 programming languages are depicted in the line diagram below.

Other programming languages

On request, the complete top 50 of programming languages is listed below. This overview is published unofficially, because it could be the case that we missed a language. If you have the impression there is a programming language lacking, please notify us at tpci@tiobe.com.

Position Programming Language Ratings
21 D 0.483%
22 Ruby 0.466%
23 Fortran 0.459%
24 IDL 0.387%
25 Prolog 0.384%
26 MATLAB 0.351%
27 Awk 0.340%
28 ActionScript 0.326%
29 Bash 0.273%
30 RPG 0.242%
31 Logo 0.227%
32 T-SQL 0.204%
33 CL 0.195%
34 LabView 0.177%
35 S-Lang 0.155%
36 Forth 0.138%
37 Tcl/Tk 0.127%
38 REXX 0.124%
39 VBScript 0.121%
40 Smalltalk 0.121%
41 dBASE 0.118%
42 Icon 0.100%
43 ML 0.095%
44 Bourne Shell 0.094%
45 Postscript 0.086%
46 Lingo 0.086%
47 OCaml 0.081%
48 Dylan 0.078%
49 Euphoria 0.072%
50 Objective-C 0.067%

The Next 50 Programming Languages

The following list of languages denotes #51 till #100. Since the differences are relatively small between these languages, they are only listed (in alphabetical order).

  • ABC, AD, Alpha, APL, AppleScript, Beta, Boo, cg, Ch, Clean, Clipper, Csh, cT, dc, DCL, Eiffel, Erlang, Focus, FP, Haskell, Inform, Io, J#, LotusScript, Lua, MAD, Magic, Maple, Mathematica, Modula-2, MUMPS, Natural, Oberon, Occam, OPL, Oz, PILOT, PL/1, Powerbuilder, Progress, Q, REALBasic, Rebol, Scala, SIGNAL, Simula, Verilog, VHDL, XSLT, and Yorick.

March's Newsflash - Brought to you by Paul Jansen

  • We have received a lot of feedback after publishing the exceptions and grouping at the TPCI definition page. This has led to some rearrangements and changes. Details can be found at the definition page.

  • In the tables below some long term trends are listed about categories of languages. From this month on the language paradigms are calculated automatically thanks to Nick de Jong. The tables show that the object-oriented paradigm is gaining popularity very slowly, and compiled, statically typed languages are getting back in the spotlight.

    Category Ratings Mar 2006 Delta Mar 2005
    Procedural Languages 49% -3%
    Object-Oriented Languages 49% +4%
    Logical Languages 1% -1%
    Functional Languages 1% +0%

    Category Ratings Mar 2006 Delta Mar 2005
    Typed Languages 65% +3%
    Untyped Languages 35% -3%

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Q: What definition of programming languages has been used?

    A: We adopted the definition of programming language from Wikipedia. Based on this definition languages such as HTML and XML are not considered programming languages. The same holds for data query language SQL. ASP and ASP.NET are also not because it is regarded a technique that makes use of other languages such as JavaScript and VBScript or .NET compatible languages.

  • Q: How are dialects of languages grouped?

    A: Some languages are grouped together because they are very similar to each other. An example is the language entry Basic which covers Visual Basic, QBasic, Microsoft Basic, etc. VB.NET is an exception to this rule because it differs too much from classic Visual Basic versions. The ratings for a collection of languages is calculated by taking the maximum of all individual entries. BTW, assembly languages are not grouped in the index because they differ so much from each other in our opinion that they should be treated separately.

  • Q: Am I allowed to show the TPC index in my weblog/presentation/publication?

    A: This is OK provided that the original source is referred to: www.tiobe.com.

  • Q: What happened to Java in April 2004? Did you change your methodology?

    A: No, we did not change our methodology at that time. Google changed its methodology. They performed a general sweep action to get rid of all kinds of web sites that had been pushed up. As a consequence, there was a huge drop for languages such as Java and C++. In order to minimize such fluctuations in the future, we added two more search engines (MSN and Yahoo) a few months after this incident.

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